Two officials per game – an up official who is positioned in an officials stand at the net and a down official positioned at ground level at the net across from the up official – can be used to enforce rules and administer penalties. Four officials may be utilized in competitive play with the addition of 2 line judges. One official (the up official) may be used in recreational play.
The game score is typically kept by a courtside official; however a scorekeeper may be utilized for additional assistance.
Depending on the format, some institutions offer beach/sand volleyball in a self officiated capacity.